Tourism Information of Ardabil

Hamadan Province , is one of the 31 provinces of Iran . Its center is Hamadan city . The province of Hamadan covers an area of 19,546 km² . In the year 1996 , Hamadan province had a population of approximately 1.7 million people ; according to the National Census held in 2011 the population of the Province was 1758268 people . In 2014 it was placed in Region 4 .

Other major cities of Hamadan province are : Hamadan , Toyserkan , Nahavand , Malayer , Asad Abad , Bahar , Famenin , Razan and Kabudrahang .

 

Geography

The province lies in an elevated region , with the 'Alvand' mountains , running from the north west to the south west . These are part of the Zagros mountain range of Iran .

Hamadan enjoys temperate warm summers and relatively cold winters .

 

Demographics

Malayer county has a population of around 310,000 people , Nahavand county has a population of 200,000 people , Hamadan County has a population of 700,000 people , Tooserkan and Asadabad each have a population of around 150,000 , Kabutare ahang , Razan , and Bahar each have a population of between 120,000 - 140,000 people .

Based on official statistics of 1997 , the population of Hamadan county was 563,444 people (with overwhelming majority living in Hamadan city) .

 

Languages

·         Persian language : Spoken by the majority of Hamadan city and county centers , it's Iran's official language .

·         Azeri language : Most of the people living in the north and western side of Hamadan city are speak Azeri as of their native language . (562 villages of province)

·         Lurish : Most people living in the southern of province in Malayer , Nahavand and Samen (255 villages of province-Luri and Lak)

·         Kurdish : Most people living in the west of province . (159 villages of province)

 

Counties Languages

In Hamadan city , 80% of the people identified their language as Persian , 12% Azeri and 8% Luri , Kurdish and Laki .

In the counties of Hamadan province , the Hamadan county (which mainly includes Hamadan city) , 70% of the people are Persian , 22% Azeri and 8% Lurish , Kurdish and Laki .

In Hamadan city , 97% of the people identified their language as Persian and 3% other languages . The population of Nahavand was 184160 (in 1997) with approximately 99% speaking Luri and Laki . The population of Malayer in 1997 was 297062 and approximately 45% speak Persian , 45% Luri and Laki and 10% Azeri . The population of Tooserkan county was 118945 in 1997 and the majority of the population is Luri and Laki . Alongside a minority of Azeri of 22% . In Asadabad county , the population was 110077 (in 1997) and 63% were Persian , 19% Kurdish , 14% Azeri and 4% Luri and Laki . In Kabudarahang , the population in 1997 was 152318 with 90% speaking Azeri , 5% Persian and another 5% Kurdish . In Razan county , the population was 123790 (in 1997) with 99.47% of the residents speaking Azeri and 0.53 speaking Kurdish . In Bahar country was 127600 with 86.3% speaking Azeri , 7.9% speaking Kurdish , 4.5% speaking Persian and 1.3% speaking Luri .

 

History

Hamadan province is one of the most ancient parts of Iran and its civilization . Relics of this area confirm this fact . Today's Hamedan is what is left of Ecbatana , The Medes' capital before they formed a union with the Persians . The poet Ferdowsi says that Ecbatana was built by King Jamshid .

According to historical records , there was once a castle in this city by the name of Haft Hessar (Seven Walls) which had a thousand rooms and its grandeur equalled that of the Babylon Tower .

The structures of city are related to Diya Aku , a King of the Medes from 700 BC . According to Greek records , this territory was called 'Ekbatan' and 'Hegmataneh' by this King , thus transformed into a huge capital .

During the Parthian era , Ctesiphon became capital of Persia , and Hamedan became the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers . After the Parthians , the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamedan as well .

In the year 633 when the war of Nahavand took place and Hamadan came into the hands of the invading Arabs , at times it thrived and at times it declined and witnessed hardships . During the Buwayhids , it suffered plenty of damages . In the 11th century , the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadan once again .

The city of Hamadan was always at risk during the rise and fall of powers . It was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion . But during the Safavid era the city thrived once more . In the 18th century , Hamadan surrendered to the Ottomans , but Hamadan was retaken by Nader Shah Afshari , and under the peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans it was returned to Iran .

The city of Hamadan lay on the Silk Road and even in recent centuries enjoyed good prospects in commerce and trade being on the main road network in the western region of Iran .

According to local Jewish traditions , the City of Hamedan is mentioned in the Bible , as the capital of Ancient Persia in the days of King Ahasuerus in the Book of Esther . It was then known as Shushan . The Tombs of Mordecai and Esther are located in modern-day Hamadan .

 

Administrative divisions

The province has a population of over 1,820,000 million . (As of 2008) The province is divided into 8 Shahrestans (≈counties) , which in turn are divided into 23 Bakhshs (≈districts) in total . These divisions are shown on the map as well as the center of each county and the neighbor provinces .

 

Colleges and universities

1-    Hamedan Medical University

2-    Bu-Ali Sina University

3-    Hamedan University of Technology

4-    Islamic Azad University of Hamedan

5-    Payam Noor University of Hamedan

6-    Payam Noor University of Bahar

7-    Payam Noor University of Kabootar Ahang

8-    Payam Noor University of Toyserkan

9-    Payam Noor University of Nahavand

10- Payam Noor University of razan

11- Islamic Azad University of Toyserkan

12- Islamic Azad University of Nahavand

13- Malayer University

 

Attractions

The Cultural Heritage of Iran lists 442 sites of historical and cultural significance located in Hamadan , thus making the province a rich one in terms of historical attractions .

Some of the most popular sites are :

1-    Tomb of Baba Taher the poet

2-    Ganj Nameh inscriptions of Darius The Great

3-    Tomb of Esther and Mordechai

4-    Ali Sadr (Ardeles) cave

5-    Tomb of Avicenna

6-    Waterfall of Ganjnameh

7-    Stone Lion of Hamedan

8-    Abass Abad jangle(Baugh)

9-    Qorban Building

10- Alavian Tomb

11- Eram Park

12- Hegmatane (Ekbatan) City of 5000 years ago

13- Imam(pahlavi) Sq

14- Alvand Mountain

15- Grand Bazaar of Mozafarieh

Tomb of Esther and Mordechai

The Tomb of Esther and Mordechai is located in Hamadan , Iran . Believed by some to house the remains of the biblical Queen Esther and her cousin Mordechai , it is the most important pilgrimage site for Jews in the country .
In 1891 , the tomb was described as consisting of an outer and inner chamber surmounted by a dome about 50 feet (15 m) high . The dome had been covered with blue tiles , but most of them had fallen away . A few tombs of worthy Jewish individuals were located within the outer chamber .
According to Stuart Brown , the site is more probably the sepulcher of Shushandukht , the Jewish consort of the Sasanian king Yazdegerd I (399-420 A.D.) .
Another tradition first recorded during the Middle Ages places the graves of Esther and Mordechai in the Galilean archaeological site of Kfar Bar'am , close to the kibbutz of the same name , Bar'am , along Israel's northern border with Lebanon .

Avicenna Mausoleum

The Mausoleum of Avicenna is a complex located at Avicenna Square , Hamadan , Iran .
Dedicated to the Iranian polymath Avicenna , the complex includes a library , a small museum , and a spindle-shaped tower inspired by the Ziyarid-era Kavus Tower .
Designed by Hooshang Seyhoun , it was built in 1952 , replacing an older building dedicated to Avicenna which was destroyed in 1950 .
The Pahlavi government had plans to build the mausoleum since at least 1939 . The mausoleum was eventually dedicated in a grand ceremony in May 1954 , and the avenue running in front of it was also renamed in honor of Avicenna .
As the monument was a central element of the propagation of Iranian nationalism by the Pahlavi government , it was consequently in danger of being defaced , but as Khomeini himself was an admirer of Avicenna , the square was not renamed after the 1979 Revolution .

Ganj Nameh

Ganj Nameh is an ancient inscription , 5 km southwest of Hamedan , on the side of Alvand Mountain in Iran . The inscriptions were carved in granite in two sections . The one on the left was ordered by Darius the Great (521-485 BC) and the one on the right by Xerxes the Great (485-65 BC) . Both sections were carved in three ancient languages : Old Persian , Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Elamite . The inscriptions start with praise of the Zoroastrian God (Ahura Mazda) and describe the lineage and deeds of the mentioned kings .
Later generations who could not read the Cuneiform alphabets of the ancient Persian assumed that they contained the guide to an uncovered treasure ; hence they called it Ganjnameh . The name literally means "treasure epistle" , but it has also been called Jangnameh whose literal translation is "war epistle" .
The translation of the text on the right plate , attributed to Xerxes , is :
"The Great God Ahuramazda , greatest of all the gods , who created the earth and the sky and the people ; who made Xerxes king , and outstanding king as outstanding ruler among innumerable rulers ; I the great king Xerxes , king of kings , king of lands with numerous inhabitants , king of this vast kingdom with far-away territories , son of the Achaemenid monarch Darius ."
Two modern contemporary carved tablets have been placed in the site's parking lot with Persian explanation and its English translation .

Ali Sadr Cave

The Ali Sadr Cave originally called Ali Saadr or Ali Saard (meaning cold) is the world's largest water cave which attracts thousands of visitors every year . It is located in Ali Sadr Kabudarahang County about 100 kilometers north of Hamadan , western Iran (more accurately at 48°18'E 35°18'N) . Because of the cave's proximity to large cities such as Hamadan , it is a highly recommended destination for tourists from all corners of the world . Tours of the cave are available by pedalos .
Alisadr is the world's biggest water cave , where you sit in a boat and watch the view . This cave is located at 48°18'E 35°18'N , in the southern part of Ali Sadr village . The cave is entered at the side of a hill called Sari Ghiyeh which also includes two other caves called Sarab and Soubashi , each 7 and 11 kilometers from Ali Sadr Cave . Apparently , the water in Ali Sadr cave stems from a spring in Sarab .
In the summer of 2001 , a German/British expedition surveyed the cave , finding to be 11 kilometers long . The main chamber of the cave is 100 meters by 50 meters and 40 meters high .
The cave walls can extend up to 40 meters high , and it contains several large , deep lakes . The cave has a river flowing through it and most travel through the cave system is done by boat . More than 11 kilometers of the cave's water canals have been discovered so far . Some routes are 10 to 11 kilometers long and all lead to "The Island" , a centrally located large atrium .

Hamadan Stone Lion

The stone lion of Hamadan is a historical monument in Hamadan , Iran .
The stone lion -one part of the 'Lions Gate'- sits on a hill where a Parthian era cemetery is said to have been located .
When first built , this statue had a twin counterpart for which they both constituted the old gate of the city . During the Islamic conquest of Persia , the victorious Arabs referred to the gate as bâb ul-asad .
The gates were demolished in 931CE as the Deylamids took over the city .
Mard?vij unsuccessfully tried transporting one of the lions to Ray . Angered by the failure to move them , he ordered them to be demolished . One lion was completely destroyed , while the other had its arm broken and pulled to the ground . The half demolished lion lay on its side on the ground until 1949 , when it was raised again , using a supplemental arm that was built into it .
Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization reports that the lions were first thought to have been built by the orders of Alexander the Great to commemorate the death of his close companion Hephaestion .